Resolved: Development assistance should be prioritized over military aid in the Sahel region of Africa.
A weighing mechanism, one type of Framework, is a rubric you create and provide for the judge to assess the debate. Often you will have to create a weighing mechanism based on the arguments you wish to discus. Sometimes, weighing mechanisms are explicit in the resolution. The January 2014 resolution has an explicit weighing mechanism – military aid and development assistance. You’re probably thinking, “Wait, that is simply saying what the arguments of the round will be?” In order to see the weighing mechanism, you have to realize that behind these sides are implicit values.
Often you know that certain ideas or arguments are at odds in a given resolution. The WM should focus on these ideas because the topic requires debaters to confront them. You want to set the terms of this discussion. Josh Zoffer’s lecture on Framework talks about four “classic” comparisons that are embedded in resolutions:
Lives vs. Money
Environment vs. Economy
Long-term evidence vs. Short-term evidence
Empirical (holistic) evidence vs. Anecdotal evidence
I would add the following comparisons to this list:
Long-term impacts vs. Short-term impacts
Domestic impacts vs. Foreign impacts
Change vs. Status Quo
The word “prioritized” also cues you to the value comparison explicit to the resolution. So what values are hiding being military aid and development assistance? You are not simply arguing about which is most effective, you must debate the comparative goals of both types of aid. Even if one is less effective, if its goals are ultimately preferable efficacy is not the central argument that needs to be made. Let’s look at some of the values contained in this comparison:
A guide to military aid published by the Center for Public Integrity lists the following categories of aid”
Coalition Support Funds (CSF): created after 9/11 to reimburse key allied countries for providing assistance to the U.S. in the global war on terror.
Regional Defense Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP): created after 9/11 to give the Defense Department its own funding to train and educate foreign military officers in counterterrorism techniques. In practice, CTFP has evolved into a program very similar to IMET (see definition below).
Department of Defense Counterdrug Funding: assists foreign militaries and security forces to combat drug trafficking around the world; also known as Section 1004 appropriations.
Economic Support Fund (ESF): provides grants to foreign governments to support economic stability. ESF is often used for non-military purposes, but the grants are commonly viewed as a way to help offset military expenditures. They have historically been earmarked for key security allies of the United States. Israel and Egypt are the two largest recipients of ESF.
Foreign Military Financing (FMF): finances foreign governments’ acquisition of U.S. military articles, services and training.
International Military Education and Training (IMET): educates foreign military personnel on issues ranging from democracy and human rights to technical military techniques and training on U.S. weapons systems.
International Narcotics and Law Enforcement/Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI): the primary State Department funding effort for countering drugs, including the large Colombian initiatives.
Military Assistance Program (MAP): provides military material and services to foreign countries; the U.S. government is not reimbursed. MAP includes “emergency drawdowns,” which are emergency transfers authorized by the president for weapons, ammunition, parts and military equipment to foreign governments.
Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, De-mining and Related Activities (NADR): supports de-mining, anti-terrorism, and nonproliferation training and assistance.
Peacekeeping Operations (PKO)
Counterterrorism, combatting Drug Trafficking, weapons and troops provision, Peacekeeping, nonproliferation
Obviously, not all of these values will matter for the topic of the Sahel region (non-proliferation).
According to USAID, there are many sectors and components to our development assistance programs. These include
- AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY
- DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND GOVERNANCE
- ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TRADE
- ENDING EXTREME POVERTY
- ENVIRONMENT AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
- GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT
- GLOBAL HEALTH
- SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
- WATER AND SANITATION
- WORKING IN CRISES AND CONFLICT
- Boosting agricultural productivity through the Feed the Future Initiative
- Strengthening health systems through the Global Health Initiative
- Supporting democracy, human rights, and good governance
- Increasing resilience to climate shocks
- Leading quick responses to humanitarian crises
USAID’s mission includes: “Our assistance develops the markets of the future; long-time aid recipients have become strong trade partners and are the fastest growing markets for American goods. USAID is developing partnerships with countries committed to enabling the private sector investment that is the basis of sustained economic growth to open new markets for American goods, promote trade overseas, and create jobs here at home”
food security, human rights, good government, environmental protection, quality of life, peace
These values differ from those of military aid. Therefore, a good weighing mechanism will compare these goals/values in case before any arguments are made. The judge needs to be instructed how to measure the importance of these values when in competition.
USAID also makes the following statement as well:
“In an interconnected world, instability anywhere around the world can impact us here at home. Working side-by-side with the military in active conflicts, USAID plays a critical role in our nation’s effort to stabilize countries and build responsive local governance; we work on the same problems as our military using a different set of tools. We also ease the transition between conflict and long-term development by investing in agriculture, health systems and democratic institutions. And while USAID can work in active conflict, or help countries transition from violence, the most important thing we can do is prevent conflict in the first place. This is smarter, safer and less costly than sending in soldiers.”
I highlight the phrase “we work on the same problems as our military using a different set of tools” because this is the core of the January 2014 topic. Both sides agree the US should give aid to the Sahel region, but which type of aid provides the tools necessary to accomplish our goals? As you craft arguments and research the Sahel region, think about these values and which are applicable to US aid to the Sahel region. Craft a weighing mechanism that fits your case and the topic.
Wondering how to craft a weighing mechanism or Framework in general? Get a copy of Beyond Resolved today for an in depth explanation of everything relating to Framework.